By Louis Galambos

Networks of Innovation bargains a old point of view at the demeanour during which inner most quarter enterprises have bought, sustained, and periodically misplaced the facility to increase, manufacture, and industry new serum antitoxins and vaccines. the first concentration is at the H. ok. Mulford corporation, on Sharp & Dohme, which got Mulford in 1929, and on Merck & Co., Inc., which merged with Sharp & Dohme in 1953. via surveying a century of innovation in biologicals, the authors exhibit how the actions of those 3 advertisement agencies have been concerning a sequence of advanced, evolving networks of clinical, governmental, and clinical associations within the usa and overseas.

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Additional resources for Networks of Innovation: Vaccine Development at Merck, Sharp and Dohme, and Mulford, 1895–1995

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23 A Mulford sales display, c. 1920. "opsonins," serum substances that prepared invading bacteria for phagocytosis. 39 Meanwhile, companies like Mulford had experienced substantial growth and developed significant new capabilities as producers and 39 The theory of opsonins is still correct for encapsulated bacteria such as pneumococci. But see P. Keating, "Vaccine Therapy and the Problem of Opsonins," Journal ofthe History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 43 (1988): 275-96. Other new serum products included an antiplague serobacterin, for which the company was planning a new building in 1915.

See also the "Medical Corner," in S & D Extract 5, no. 5 (1933): 5-6, quoting at length from an article by Dr. Francis G. Blake, Yale University School of Medicine, providing clinical advice on serum treatment. All in MA. 39 Sharp & Dohme advertising stressed the high quality control standards of its Mulford laboratories. Ampoules Are Subjected to Rigid Bacteriological Control SHARP & DOHME ampoule solutions are prepared with all the care of biologicals . . with sterility established by actual test before being placed in stock.

198-200; Chase, Magic Shots, pp. 342-3; Betts and Douglas, "Influenza Virus," p. 1306; R. G. , Influenza, pp. 395-447. A SHARP & DOHME INTERLUDE Once the different strains of influenza virus had been isolated as separate disease-inducing entities, another part of this network could make important contributions. Epidemiologists — many of them connected to the growing public health system - could now study to useful effect the different outbreaks. 27 As became apparent, each type had a specific pattern in terms of the cyclic nature and frequency of epidemics and the severity of the illness.

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