By Armen M. Gulian, Gely F. Zharkov

This publication introduces the most recommendations of nonequilibrium phenomena in superconductors. The authors hide either experimentally well-understood issues and difficulties which physicists may possibly problem extra in view of present theoretical figuring out. a few of these issues contain thermoelectric phenomena, impression of laser radiation in addition to fluctuations in superconductors.

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32. A. A. Abrikosov, Fundamentals of the Theory of Metals, pp. 392–396, North-Holland, Amsterdam (1988). 33. J. Bardeen, L. Cooper, and J. Schrieffer, Theory of superconductivity, Phys. Rev. 108(5), 1175– 1204(1957). 34. B. S. Deaver and W. M. , Experimental evidence for quantized flux in superconducting cylinders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 7(2), 43–46 (1961). 35. D. R. Doll and M. Nöbauer, Experimental proof of magnetic flux quantization in superconducting ring, Phys. Rev. Lett. 7(2), 51–52 (1961). 36.

S. T. Belyayev, Application of the methods of quantum field theory to a system of bosons, Sov. Phys. JETP 7(2), 289–299 (1958) [Zh. Eksp. i Teor. Fiz. 34(2), 417–432 (1958)]. 39. P. W. Anderson, Basic Notions of Condensed Matter Physics, pp. 229–248, Benjamin/Cummings, London, (1984). 40. L. P. Gor’kov, On the energy spectrum of superconductors, Sov. Phys. JETP 7(3), 505–508 (1964) [Zh. Eksp. i Tear. Fiz. 34(3) 735–739 (1958)]. 41. J. R. Schrieffer, Theory of Superconductivity, pp. 1–282, W. A.

The inelastic collisions, which were omitted in the simplified BCS picture, are also not important for this class of phenomena. We note now that the BCS–Gor’kov model may be modified to remove these shortcomings. The Migdal–Eliashberg model, which is more realistic and better applicable to the problems of nonequilibrium superconductivity, is considered in detail in Chap. 3. 4. SELF-CONSISTENT PAIR FIELD: MICROSCOPIC DERIVATION OF GINZBURG–LANDAU EQUATIONS Initially, the idea that the gap in the energy spectrum of superconductors may serve as the superconducting order parameter of the phenomenological Ginzburg– Landau theory was contained in the fundamental work of Bardeen, Cooper, and This idea was confirmed by whose work has assigned the status of microscopic theory to the Ginzburg–Landau study.

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