By Takanori Okoshi (Auth.)

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49) 0 where c is the velocity of light. Combining Eq. 50) νφ x h + cee = (l/jk )V χ h. , the beam diameter and radius of curvature of the beam axis) are all much greater than the wavelength. In such a case we may consider that the wavelength is extremely short, or the frequency is extremely high, or in other words k ( = ω/c) tends to infinity. Hence, the right-hand sides of Eqs. 52) νφ x h + cee = 0. 53) These equations given relations between the directions of νφ, h, and e; evidently, each of them is normal to the other two.

This means that [see Eqs. 29)] β must be real in the core and imaginary in the cladding, and it follows from Eq. 13) that l9 2 z n n n n n n z z n n η η n z n n χ fcn

122 (October 1976). 8. M. Horiguchi and H. Osanai, Spectral losses of low-OH-content optical fibers, Electron. Lett. 12, No. 12, 310-312 (1976). 9. R. D. Maurer, Glass fibers for optical communications, Proc. IEEE 61, No. 4, 452-462 (1973). 3 Ray Theory of Optical Fibers At present, the standard approach to wave propagation analysis in optical fibers is the wave theory described in Chapters 4 and 5. However, ray theory, which is less general, has an advantage in that the physical picture is clear and comprehensible.

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