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Gen. Genet. 178,233-235. Datta, N. (1979). I n “Plasmids of Medical, Environmental and Commercial Importance” (K. N. Timmis and A. Piihler, Eds), pp. 3-12. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Davey, R. , Bird, P. , Nikoletti, S. , Praszkier, J. and Pittard, J. (1984). Plasmid 11, 234-242. , Zabala, J. C. and Ortiz, J. M. (1980). Plasmid 4, 76-81. , Bouanchaud, D. and Novick, R. P. (1978). Plasmid 1, 366-375. Dellaporta, S. I. and Pesano, R. I. (1981). In “Biology of the Rhizobiaceae” (K. L. Giles and A. G. Atherly, Eds), pp.

1980). , 1987). , 1983). D. Additional criteria Several additional criteria may also be appropriate for the primary identification of a plasmid or plasmid-associated phenotype in individual instances. V. E). These aspects are discussed later as indicated. E. Plasmid transfer The ability of a property to be transferred from one bacterium to another provides good presumptive evidence of plasmid involvement, particularly if the frequency of transfer is high. Attempts to demonstrate such transfer can, therefore, be used as an initial means of identifying a plasmid-encodedproperty or of providing evidence to support this if plasmid involvement has already been indicated by curing experiments or DNA examination.

1975). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. A. 72,2222-2226. Brooks Low, K. and Porter, D. D. (1978). Annu. Reo. Genet. 12, 249-287. , Vickers, R. , Elder, E. , Lema, M. and Garrity, G. M. (1982). J. Clin. Microbiol. 16, 230-235. Brown, B. J. and Carlton, B. C. (1980). J. Bacteriol. 142, 508-512. , Skotnicki, M. , Goodman, A. E. and Rogers, P. L. (1984). Plasmid 12, 211-214. Brunton, J. (1984). In “Antimicrobial Drug Resistance” (L. E. ), pp. 529565. New York: Academic Press. Buchanan-Wollaston, V. (1979). J.

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