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As an exercise, consider the nature of the image in cases in which the object is positioned (1) to the left of the first (left hand) focus more than two focal lengths away from the lens, (2) two focal lengths left of the lens, (3) at the first focus, and (4) between the first focus and the lens. Determine whether the image is upright or inverted and magnified or reduced in size. 7 Wavefronts and ray paths through a thin lens. 16 enables us to find the focal length of a spherical mirror. 16 by −1 to make the surface of radius −R1 a reflecting one, we find that the radius of curvature of the wavefront, R′, is simply −R1/2.

23. 53) at 45° to the normal and with its plane of polarization at 30 ° to the plane of incidence. Find the ratio of the transmitted and reflected light intensities. 24. 1 prove by a simple example that H = ε 0cE in a vacuum. 1 INTRODUCTION Physical optics is the study of the behavior of light. When light encounters an aperture or obstacle or a change in refractive index, its direction of propagation and its phase are both altered. This effect, known as diffraction, is an important aspect of physical optics.

A similarly focused laser of 10 kW power could easily induce an electrical spark in air. 5 NONPLANAR WAVEFRONTS Plane wavefronts are a special case of wavefront shape. 4). This statement is the basis of what is known as Fourier Optics. When we look at its implications more closely, a very wide range of interesting applications emerges, some of which we look at later. The statement is mathematically the same as saying an electrical signal of arbitrary shape can be decomposed by Fourier analysis into a set of pure sinusoidal electrical signals of various amplitudes and with various phase differences between them.

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