By Abraham Katzir

The expanding use of fiber optics within the box of drugs has created a necessity for an interdisciplinary standpoint of the know-how and techniques for physicians in addition to engineers and biophysicists. This e-book provides a finished exam of lasers and optical fibers in an hierarchical, three-tier process. every one bankruptcy is split into 3 uncomplicated sections: the basics part offers an outline of Read more...

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The typical laser pulses are 0 . 1 - 1 0 0 J per pulse; the average power may reach a few hundred watts. (iii) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser: In this mode, the excitation is carried out with CW or with pulsed lamps. 5), however, generates very short laser pulses ( 1 0 - 3 0 nsec). A typical Q switched laser operates at tens of pulses per second with a pulse duration of tens of nanoseconds and energies measuring tens of millijoules per pulse. (iv) Diode-pumped Nd : YAG laser: The laser light emitted from semicon­ ductor lasers can be used to excite (pump) the Nd : YAG crystal.

6 μπι. 4), at the end of which is a focusing lens that focuses the laser beam to a tiny spot. The laser energy that is absorbed in the tissue under this spot heats the tissue to a high temperature and evaporates it. In order to perform laser sur­ gery, at least 1 0 - 2 0 W of C 0 laser energy is needed. Some of the lasers used may emit up to 100 W either continuously or in pulses. From the practical point of view, the C 0 laser is a well-developed and reli­ able system. In order to operate a typical axial flow laser, a few standard items may be required, a special electrical supply, a special water outlet for cooling water for the laser, and a supply of C 0 gas bottles.

15. The active medium is a crystalline material, in this case a synthetic YAG crystal doped with roughly 1 - 2 % of the rare earth Nd. 064 μπι in the near IR. The Nd : YAG crystal is excited (pumped) by flash lamps. 0%. Heat is generated during the operation of the laser, necessitating water cooling. 15 (a) Schematic drawing of a solid-state laser, (b) Photograph of a solid-state laser. ) electrical power of about 7 - 1 0 kW is necessary. This requires a special line, of perhaps 220 V, three phases, and 40 A.

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