By Otwin Breitenstein, Wilhelm Warta, Martin Langenkamp
This ebook bargains with lock-in thermography (LIT) as a unique energetic dynamic variation of the well known IR thermography. It allows a far stronger signal-to-noise ratio (up to 1000x) and a higher lateral answer in comparison to steady-state thermography. The ebook concentrates on functions to digital units and fabrics, however the easy chapters are helpful to boot for non-destructive review. a variety of experimental methods to LIT are reviewed with detailed emphasis to assorted on hand advertisement LIT platforms. New LIT functions are reviewed, like Illuminated LIT utilized to sunlight cells , and non-thermal LIT lifetime mapping. normal LIT research case reports are introduced.
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Extra resources for Lock-in Thermography: Basics and Use for Evaluating Electronic Devices and Materials
First, any multiples of the 30 2 Physical and Technical Basics Nyquist frequency are “forbidden frequencies” for undersampling. As an example, Fig. 7d shows sampling of a waveform at flock-in D fs D 2fNyq . We see that this is a typical interference, hence the samples contain no information as to the amplitude of the periodic signal. For two-phase correlation this first interference occurs already at flock-in D fs =2 D fNyq =4, since the sampling of each phase component occurs at fs =2 (see Sect.
21) are also amplitude values correctly calibrated in units of K or mK. However, in order to check the function of the correlation procedure and to test lock-in thermography systems in general, a simple test device is required, which allows one to perform a functional testing and a quantitative calibration of lock-in thermography systems. Ideally, this test device should provide a homogeneous area, the surface temperature of which can be modulated sinusoidally with a well-defined amplitude. The simplest possible test device is a resistively heated metal stripe.
5 Influence of Non-harmonic Heating In the field of non-destructive testing (NDT) nearly all lock-in thermography publications have been based on the assumption that the introduction of heat into the investigated object has to be harmonic. Indeed, the whole theory of thermal waves, which the equations in Sect. 2 refer to, is based on the assumption of a harmonic introduction of heat. Therefore, enormous efforts have been made to ensure a most possible harmonic introduction of heat for lock-in thermography used in nondestructive testing.